Native to the mountainous regions of Europe and north and west Asia. The male flowers are sulphur yellow in form of ovate catkins. The female flowers are purple.

Parts used:

Leaf, bark

Botany

Native to the mountainous regions of Europe and north and west Asia. The male flowers are sulphur yellow in form of ovate catkins. The female flowers are purple.

Constituents

Contains volatile oils (alpha-pinene and limonene principally), bitter principles (pinicrin) and Vitamin C.

Possible Interactions

Herbs - None documented. Drugs - None known.

Comments

Approved by the German Commission E for cough/bronchitis, colds and oral inflammation. Since about 1992 an extract obtained from the outer covering of conifer trees has virtually revolutionized the whole antioxidant movement. The substance is called pycnogenol and comes mostly from the pine bark. It is 50 times more potent than vitamin E and 20 times more so than vitamin C. Avoid confusion with fir shoots (Picea abies or Abies alba).

➥ Pharmacopoeia and Other Monographs

The German Commission E, BP 2007

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